This volume of the Harvard Classics included two of the most important English thinkers of the 19th century, John Stuart Mill and Thomas Carlyle. These two authors strongly contrast each other, with Mill defining classical liberalism and starting the modern liberal tradition, and Carlyle representing a defense of the pre-ideological order. The trouble with Mill and Carlyle is that, even though they were writing 150 years ago, their conflict is one that still echoes through till today, and I am decidedly aligned with Carlyle and have am a-priori distaste for Mill’s philosophy.
Edmund Burke was an 18th century English politician who is credited as the founder of conservative politics. The big reason he got to be the father of conservatism is because he was part of the first generation of people to observe ideology first hand, and his opposition to revolutionary politics and defense of an order carefully cultivated over many generations sets him apart from many of the men of his age who remain famous to this day.
Many of his writings have been ordered and this Harvard Classics volume focuses on four works in particular. Two works are aesthetic philosophy and two concern contemporary politics. The first, a short treatise called On Taste, investigates the meaning of taste, how it is cultivated and the difference between good and bad taste. His conclusion is that taste is honed by experience, familiarity, and practice. As a whole, the piece felt extremely dated because many of his discussions on art not only contradict the modern art movements, but also the preceding romantic movement. The trouble is a good framework should provide insight not just to the past but into the future, and I struggled to see how Burke would incorporate luminaries such as Monet and Van Gogh into his theory. Jackson Pollack, of course, would be right out.
With primary season coming up soon, figuring out how to make an impact. While volunteering for a campaign or some other larger commitment is a great thing to do, you may only be interested in something smaller.
So here’s what anyone can do to to help get out the vote: call up a bunch of people you know who live nearby on election day and ask them: “Have you voted?” and if they haven’t, ask them if they could use a ride or any assistance while they go and vote. The key here is to make it so that person has no excuse for not voting.
That’s a really simple thing to do, but the sad thing is, very few people bother to do it. Every vote helps on election day, and you can help ensure people you know turn out to vote.
Now, there’s obviously some good practice to be used here. You should try and focus on people who are likely to go and vote for your preferred candidates, but obviously don’t make it a prerequisite if someone asks for your help.
In primaries in particular, giving people rides or doing favors for them on election day can do more than mobilize your candidate’s existing base. In a primary, people don’t really know who they should be voting for or why, and they will probably ask you your thoughts. You’ll have a chance to pitch your guy and hopefully that will earn a vote, as much out of gratitude as convincing. Again, it’s not something worth getting belligerent about.
Of course, this can be expanded more widely by targeting organizations likely to have a large majority of voters who lean your way. This gives you more opportunities to help and get out the vote, and can certainly be pitched as non-partisan.
Of all of the volumes of the Harvard Classics I have read thusfar, Two Years Before the Mast, by Richard Henry Dana, Jr is probably the most obscure, but also one of the most entertaining reads in the collection. Being written by an American for a general audience less than two hundred years ago certainly helps to make Two Years Before the Mast very readable today.
The book is a memoir of the author’s two year voyage from Boston to California and back in the early 1830s. The author was a student at Harvard and had an eye condition which made him decide to take a leave of absence from college to do something completely different. The author, after his return, went on to become a prominent lawyer of his era, serving as an US Attorney, among other things.
While the book is generally very easy to read, one word of caution is that it does not pull any punches when it comes to sailing lingo. This wasn’t an issue for me because I grew up sailing a few days a week, but the use of terms could be difficult to someone who doesn’t immediately know what a halyard is.
The main action of the book takes the author aboard a brig called the Pilgrim from Boston, around Cape Horn and to California. The Pilgrim then goes up and down the coast collecting cow hides and depositing them back in San Diego. Eventually, the author is placed in a land job, curing the hides for the journey to Boston. He then trades places with a crewman on another boat, the Alert, as they engage in the same collection of hides. Lucky for the author, the Pilgrim’s voyage had been extended a year, and so by traveling on the Alert, he returned to Boston on schedule. Both ships and the hide-curing house were owned by the same company, which enabled his transfer between these jobs, although not without some drama.
The author’s description of life aboard a humble merchant vessel is a very good primary source for the era, just on the cusp of steam-driven ships becoming popular. His depictions of the arbitrary abuse of power by captains, and the way merchant houses, thousands of miles from legal recourse, took advantage of seamen wound up in major reforms.
The other aspect to the text, the descriptions of California in the 1830s make it a critical primary historical source for the region as well as the best account of the region when the gold rush got underway a little over a decade after his return.
In addition to the historical value, the book is a worthwhile read for its depictions of the human condition in many small ways throughout the journey. Whether isolated on a ship or at a wedding reception, or with people from numerous countries, Two Years Before the Mast gives an account of the common human element.
An interesting thing about the text is the narrator is that while he is from classical Pilgrim stock, an educated reform Christian constantly concerned with the justice given to others and a desire to reform and improve the existing order, he is also someone extremely proud and confident in his people and their culture. On more than one occasion, Dana remarks at how amazingly California would be transformed with American or English colonialism rather than the Criollioes, Castizos and Mestizos that made up the population at the time.
Dana was certainly proven right on this point when he writes about his return to California twenty-four years later. Following the gold rush and much development, California was growing and thriving, with new industry and development.
This book was very popular in its day and the people described in it took a sense of pride at having been a part of it, but it’s relevance has faded with time. For those of you interested in sailing and historical America, it is a first rate book. However, it is not a book of particular artistic merit, nor does is it depict anything of particular historical importance. Two Years Before the Mast is ultimately the story of a sometimes dangerous, often monotonous, and always laborious voyage to a backwater at the far end of the Earth. What makes the memoir stand out is the drama to be found in what was starting to become mundane.
With the end of Two Years Before the Mast, is the end to a long string of volumes dedicated to narrative works. The next two volumes focus on Burke, Carlyle and Mill will finish up the first half of the Harvard Classics and begin marked shift towards compilations of shorter works (The Voyage of the Beagle and The Autobiography of Beneventuo Cellini being the exceptions).